One of the best resources for this (besides a good monolingual dictionary) is Using English.com. Using English has an excellent phrasal verb dictionary (also an idioms dictionary) as well as a forum where you can ask for extra information or just check that you are using them correctly.
Try and notice patterns with certain particles (the prepositions or adverbs that make up the phrasal verb) and how they change the meaning of the base verb on its own. For example, in the verbs to give something back, take it back, or pay it back, “back” indicates a return to the source. You’re not just giving something to somebody, you are specifically giving it to the person who gave it to you originally. Phrasal Verbs in Use has several excellent units about particles and this can be a useful way to try and guess at meanings.